The Influence of Patient’s Sex on Acute Pulmonary Embolism Outcomes | Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

The Influence of Patient’s Sex on Acute Pulmonary Embolism Outcomes

March 12, 2024

Cyrus Darki, Grade 9 -Poster Presenter


Mrs. Allison Hennings – IMSA/RISE Instructor
Dr. Jawed Fareed (Ph.D.) – Loyola University Medical Center
Dr. Parth Desai (M.D.) – Loyola University Medical Center
Dr. Waj Humayun (M.D.) – Loyola University Medical Center

Abstract/Project Information:

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Gender differences have been increasingly recognized in the presentation and management of coronary artery disease and heart failure, however, few studies have examined acute PE representing a significant gap in the literature.

The primary aim of this analysis was to determine the impact of patient sex on PE outcomes. Eight hundred eighty-nine study subjects were sourced from the Loyola University Medical Center PE registry. The inclusion criteria for enrollment was a confirmed acute PE diagnosed by a physician. Patients were excluded if the patient’s sex or treatment modality for PE management were unknown. Patients were divided into males and females. Predictor variables included baseline demographics, laboratory biomarkers, and imaging parameters. The primary outcome of interest was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, major bleeding events, ICU admission, and a six-minute walk test to measure functional capacity. In a large cohort of patients from a quality assurance database, this experiment demonstrated significant differences in the outcomes between males and females presenting with acute PE. Specifically, as compared to males, females had increased inpatient mortality (t-test, p = 0.03) and, for the first time reported, decreased functional cardiopulmonary capacity as assessed by a six-minute walk test (t-test, p = 0.01).