History and Social Science Learning Standards - Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

History and Social Science Learning Standards

History/Social Science

Program Purpose

Secondary education performs a vital function in the cognitive and moral development of adolescents; it supports the transition between the home focused world of the child and the outwardly focused world of the adult. The study of history and the social sciences forms a key element of any quality secondary education. It enables students to develop an intellectual and cultural context that serves as a framework for future intellectual, civic, and ethical growth, and participation in civil society.

One purpose of the History and Social Science Program at IMSA is to assist citizen-students with the attainment of knowledge, skills, thinking modes, and values which aid in the understanding of the human condition and human interaction. Given the volume of knowledge in history and social science, the curriculum needs to focus on the development of a historical and social science perspective through the establishment of a set of essential questions, the answers to which will allow students to analyze historical events and cultures. Another purpose is to equip students for their responsibility to maintain the republic and to become knowledgeable, active participants in our ever-changing democratic society. In addition, history and social science by their very nature serve as a unique structure for the integration of knowledge among academic disciplines. Such an opportunity permits history and social science to serve as a pivotal force to promote integrated curriculum. Furthermore, participation in the Metro History Fair and the Future Problem Solving Bowl afford students external opportunities to forge connections and to apply knowledge, skills, thinking and values. Finally, history and social science intends to pursue the development of meaningful and relevant learning units and innovative teaching practices, and to share these with educational institutions and teachers in the State of Illinois and the nation.

Contents


Team Goals

  • prepare students for the increasingly global and technological society of the 21st Century;
  • help students understand the development of cultures and political and economic systems;
  • expand students’ understanding of their responsibilities in our pluralistic American democracy;
  • help students grasp the essential connections that bind the natural sciences, humanities, and social sciences;
  • develop student understanding of and tolerance for the diverse values of groups and individuals within the global community;
  • enable students to recognize the complexities of ethical behavior in a pluralistic society;
  • increase students knowledge of geography and its interrelationships with human societies;
  • challenge students to examine the balance between personal identity and membership in a social group; and
  • develop learning units and innovative teaching techniques which support team goals and share that information with history and social science teachers at state and national levels.

Unifying Concepts and Processes

Preparation of young people for membership in the human community is, ultimately, the goal of secondary education. Going back as far as we have had speech, learning the collective lore of the tribe is at the heart of a young person’s preparation for the adult world. The world has come a long way since the days of hunter-gatherers and oral tradition, yet little has changed. History and social science have replaced myth and allegory, but their function remains the same. We deem the concepts below to constitute the heart of this preparation.

  • Citizenship, ethical behavior and human rights in a democracy. Exploration of the relationship between individual freedom and community responsibility.
  • Interaction of the physical environment with culture. Examination of the relationship between the physical world and the people who inhabit it.
  • Continuity and change in human societies. Exploration of the cultural patterns that remain constant over time and the elements that modify those patterns.
  • Power, its source and its justification. Description of the structures and processes that determine the nature of authority, the distribution of society’s resources, and the nature of its needs.
  • Global connections, commercial and cultural. Examination of the movement of material and ideas among regions of the world.
  • Connections of gender and their effect on human interaction. Examination of the roles assigned to the genders in different societies over time.
  • World view, science, technology, and society. Consideration of different human strategies for the explanation of nature and the manipulation of its forces.
  • Production, distribution, and consumption as forces in human affairs. Examination of material wealth as the major factor in human events.
  • Construction of truth and confrontation of ambiguities. Examination of mythological, philosophical, and scientific approaches to the question of how we know what we know.
  • Influence of society on the behavior of the individual. Examination of socialization and how it affects the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of individuals within a given society.

Learning Standards

Students studying History and Social Science at IMSA will:

  1. examine the parameters of citizenship, ethical behavior, and human rights in a democracy.
  2. analyze the effects of the symbiotic relationship between geography, environment, and other physical factors on the development of human cultures and political systems.
  3. develop skills such as critical reading, interpretation of maps, art, iconographics, and the interpretation of statistical and tabular evidence.
  4. analyze the complexity of constructing public policy in an atmosphere of ethical pluralism.
  5. trace the development of the elements of continuity that bind societies together over time and identify significant changes that interrupt that continuity.
  6. examine the nature of political and economic power, its sources and its justification, and its relationship to dominant ideologies.
  7. compile and analyze the different definitions of truth and method: mythology, religion, philosophy, and science.
  8. identify the cultural, commercial, and artistic connections that bind the regions of the world.
  9. express both written and oral opinions clearly and elegantly and defend them with the use of primary evidence.
  10. examine the history of different intellectual disciplines with particular emphasis on their areas of confluence and conflict.
  11. analyze the importance of material forces – production, distribution, consumption – as forces in human affairs.
  12. analyze the construction of gender roles and their influence on human events and public policy.
  13. locate and evaluate data and primary sources in both printed and electronic media.
  14. evaluate the relationship between individual behavior and social expectation.
  15. evaluate the roles of different groups in the political institutions and social fabric of pluralistic societies over time.

Citation Format
IMSA History and Social Science Learning Standards are cross referenced to:

  • IMSA’s Standards of Significant Learning [SSL-II.A]
  • Illinois State Learning Standards citation format [SSL-14.A.5]
  • American Historical Association [AHA-5.C]

A. Students studying history and social science at IMSA examine the parameters of citizenship, ethical behavior, and human rights in a democracy by:

A.1 comparing Greek notions of citizenship with those of Roman notions of Civitas and service to the state. [SSL- II.A, B; V.A,B; IL-14.B.5]
A.2 demonstrating an understanding of the relationship between governmental authority and individual autonomy as expressed in the Bill of Rights and its applicability to issues of the 1790s and the 1990s. [SSL- I.D; II.A, B; V.A; IL-14.A.5]
A.3 citing the issues of civil liberties in war time; to what extent does the sense of national emergency overrule the concerns about individual rights. [SSL-II.A, B; V.A,B; IL-14.A.5; AHA-5.C, 5.C, 5.F]
A.4 examining ethical dilemmas from history such as the Holocaust, slavery, use of atomic weapons, the cult of domesticity, and civil liberties for persons with AIDS. [SSL-I.C,D; II.A, B, III. A, B, VI. A, V.A, B, IL-14.D.5; AHA-5.A, 5.B, 5.D, 5.F]

B. Students studying history and social science at IMSA analyze the effect of geography, environment, and other physical factors on the development of human cultures and political systems by:

B.1 describing the unique geography of the North American continent and projecting its effect on the growth of the U.S. [SSL-I.A,B,C,D, II.A ,B, III.A, B; IL-17.A, 2.A, 2.B; AHA-2.E, 4.C]
B.2 analyzing the relationships among geography, climate, and social development in regions and cultures of the world. [SSL-II.A, B, IV.A, C. V.A, C; IL-17.B.2.A; AHA-2.E, 4.C]
B.3 synthesizing climatic, demographic, and technological factors to explain a series of crises that has beset humanity. [SSL-I A, B, C, D, I. A, B, III.A, B, IV.A, C; IL-17.C.2.A; AHA-2.E, 4.C]

C. Students studying history and social science at IMSA develop skill such as critical reading, interpretation of maps, art, iconographics, and the interpretation of statistical and tabular evidence by:

C.1 assessing written materials based on established standards related to relevancy, accuracy, and critical thinking. [SSL-I.A, B, C, D, II. A, B, III.A, IV.A, B, C, D, IL-16.A.2.A; AHA-2.A, 2.B, 2.C, 2.D, 3.A, 3.C, 3.D, 3.H]
C.2 displaying the ability to extract relevant and meaningful data from cartographic representation. [SSL-I.A, C, D, III.A, IV.A, C, IL-17.D.2.A; AHA-2.E, 4.C]
C.3 deconstructing and interpreting art and other iconographic material as indicators of political, cultural, and social structures in various societies. [SSL-I.C, D, II.A, B, III.A, IV-A, B, C, D; AHA-2.G]
C.4 explaining historical phenomena based on the use of statistical data and the interpretation of tables, charts, and graphs. [SSL-I.C, D, II.A, B, III-A, IV.A; IL-18.B.5; AHA-1.E, 2.F, 4.C]

D. Students studying history and social science at IMSA analyze the complexity of constructing public policy in an atmosphere of ethical pluralism by:

D.1 determining the complexities of making policy decisions in a pluralistic society. [SSL-I.D, II.A, B, IV.A, B, V.A, B; IL-14.D.5; AHA-5.A, 5.D, 5.E, 5.F]
D.2 demonstrating an understanding of the potential dangers in the process of implementing specific ethical or moral systems in a pluralistic society. [SSL-III.B, IV.A, C, V.A, B; IL-18..A.5; AHA-3.B, 5.A, 5.B]
D.3 examining the core values that have governed the American society and other world societies and analyze the effects of those core values on political, economic, and social issues. [SSL-I.A, B, C, D, II. A, B, III. A, V.B; IL-14. B.5; AHA-3.B, 5.A, 5.B, 5.D, 5.F]

E. Students studying history and social science at IMSA trace the development of the elements of continuity that bind societies together over time and identify significant changes that interrupt that continuity by:

E.1 examining such dramatic periods of rapid change as – The Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, Industrial Revolution, World War II – and determining their effects on cultural and political institutions. [SSL-I.C, D, II. A, B, III. A, IL-18. A.5; AHA-1.A, 1.B, 1.F, 3.F, 3.G, 3.E]
E.2 analyzing the characteristic elements of culture that persist in the face of change. [SSL-I.C, D, II.A, B, III.C, IV.A, C, D; IL-18. C.5; AHA-1.F, 3.B]

F. Students studying history and social science at IMSA examine the nature of political or economic power, its sources and its justification, and its relationship to dominant ideologies by:

F.1 exploring the relationship between the ideas that justify political power and the concrete forces that create political power. [SSL-I.B, D, II.B, III.B, IV.A, C; IL-14. B.5; AHA-3.E, 3.I]
F.2 assessing the role of wealth or property in the establishment of political authority in different governmental systems; monarchy, oligarchy, democracy. [SSL- II.A, B, III.A, C, IV.A, C, D, V.A, B; IL-15. A.5.A, B; AHA -5B, 3I]
F.3 analyzing different cultural attitudes and ideologies towards wealth and its uneven (or even) distribution; class or caste systems, capitalism, socialism, Marxism. [SSL-I.B, D, II.A, B, III.B, C; IV.A, B, C, V.A, B; IL-14. B.5; AHA-3.F, 3.H, 3.I]

G. Students studying history and social science at IMSA compile and analyze the different definitions of truth and methods for ascertaining truth; mythology, religion, philosophy and science by:

G.1 considering different approaches to the construction of truth: religious revelation, intellectual deduction, sensory observation. [SSL-I.B, II.A, B, III,B, C, IV.A, B, C, V.A; IL-18.C.5; AHA-3.B]
G.2 exploring the complex relationships that link mythological, philosophical, and scientific views of nature. [SSL-A, B, III.B, C, IV.A, B, C, D, V.A, B; IL-18.C.5; AHA-3.B, 3.D]
G.3 determining the character of scientific methodology and assessing its relationship to other methodologies. [SSL-I.B, II.A, B, III.A, B, C, IV..A, V.B; IL-18.C.5]

H. Students studying history and social science at IMSA identify the cultural, commercial, and artistic connections that bind the regions of the world over time by:

H.1 tracing major trade routes at different periods of history and considering the material and intellectual interactions that such routes would foster. [SSL-I.A, B, C, D II.B, III.A, B, C, IV.A, B, C; IL-15.A.5.B; AHA-1.F, 2.F, 3.E]
H.2 exploring the links between cultural institutions and demonstrating the nature of cultural hegemony. [SSL-II.A, B; III.B, C; IV.A, B, C, D; V.A; IL-18.C.5; AHA-3.B]
H.3 examining the spread of artistic and architectural styles as an example of cultural influence, moderated by local environments. [SSL-I.B, D; II.A, B, III.A, B, C; IV.A, B, C, D; IL-18.C.5]

I. Students studying history and social science at IMSA express both written and oral opinions clearly and elegantly and defend them with the use of primary evidence by:

I.1 participating in class discussions that require student-to-student interaction and informed argument. [SSL-I.A, B, D, II.A, B, III.B, C, IV.A, B, C, D, V.A, B; IL-18.5.B.5; AHA-4.A, 4.C]
I.2 writing papers that defend a given position or argument with the use of primary evidence. [SSL-I.B, II.A, B, III.A, B, C, IV.B, V.B; IL-18.B.5; AHA-4.A, 4.B, 4.C, 4.B]
I.3 engaging in group projects centered on the discussion of complex historical problems. [SSL-I.A, B, D, II.A, B, III.A, B, C, IV.A, B, C, D, V.A, B; IL-16.A.5.A]

J. Students studying history and social science at IMSA examine the history of different intellectual disciplines with particular emphasis on their areas of confluence and conflict by:

J.1 exploring the history of mathematics and science and their relationship to philosophy and humanities. [SSL-I.B, II.A, B, III.B, C, IV.A, C; IL-14.F.5; AHA-1.F, 3.E, 3.H, 3.I]
J.2 reconstructing (to the extent that it is possible) the spirit of past periods and cultures by looking at their politics, philosophy, religion, literature, art, and science as components of a single world view. [SSL-I B, II.A, B, II.B, C, IV.C, D; IL-16.D.5, 18.C.5; AHA-3.B, 3.H, 3.I]

K. Students studying history and social science at IMSA analyze the importance of material forces ­ production, distribution, consumption ­ as forces in human affairs by:

K.1 determining the role of wealth in the construction of definitions of social status and political power. [SSL-I.C, II.A, B, IV.A. V.A, B; IL-14.F.5; AHA-3.I, 3.F, 3.E]
K.2 exploring how changes in the means of production from handicraft to industry, transform other aspects of a given society. [SSL-I.C, D, II.A, B, III.B, IV.A; IL-14.F.5; AHA-3.E, I.F]
K.3 assessing the role of material considerations in determining diplomatic or military policy. [SSL-I.C, D, II.A, B, III.B, IV.A, V.B; IL-14.E.5]
K.4 evaluating colonialism and imperialism as economic as well as political activities. [SSL-I.C, D, II.A, B, IV.A, C, V.A, B; IL-15.D.5.B]
K.5 defining the notion of value itself and projecting changes in value to the forces of supply and demand. [SSL-I.C, D, II.A, B, IV.A, C, V.A, B; IL-15.E.5.C, 15.A.5.D]

L. Students studying history and social science at IMSA analyze the construction of gender roles and their influence on human events and public policy by:

L.1 exploring gender roles across cultural boundaries and identifying major trends and inconsistencies. [SSL-I.C, D, II.A, B, IV.A, V.A, B; IL-16.D.5; AHA-3.B 3.H]
L.2 assessing the relationship between gender roles and dominant economic and political systems. [SSL-I.C, D, II.A, B, IV.A, V.A, B; IL-16.D.5; AHA-3.D, 1.F, 3.H]
L.3 identifying conditions under which traditional gender roles are transformed. [SSL-I.C, D, II.A, B, IV.A, V.A, B; IL-16.D.5.C]

M. Students studying history and social science at IMSA locate and evaluate data and primary sources in both printed and electronic media by:

M.1 developing facility with the resources of a research library. [SSL-I.C, D, III.A, IV.A; IL-17.A.5; AHA-2.E, 2.F, 2.G, 4.B, 4.C]
M.2 demonstrating the ability to locate data and information on the internet and to evaluate the quality of those sources. [SSL-I.C, C, III.A, IV.A; IL-16.A.5.A; AHA-2.E, 2.F, 2.G, 4.B, 4.C]
M.3 displaying the ability to use printed and electronic sources in their arguments while crediting those sources appropriately. [SSL- I.C, D, III.A, IV.A; IL-16.A.5.A; AHA-4.C]

N. Students studying history and social science at IMSA evaluate the relationship between individual behavior and social expectations by:

N.1 assessing the balance between the rights of the individual and the harmony of the community over different historical periods and cultural boundaries. [SSL-I.C, D, II.A, B, III.B, IV.A, V.A, B; IL-16.B.5.A; AHA-3.B, 3.E, 5.B,5.D]
N.2 examining the ever present tension which exists in American society between Americans’ desire for individuality and personal rights and society’s requirements for individual and community responsibilities. [SSL- I.C, D; II .A, B; III.B, IV. A, V, A, B; IL-14.A5; AHA-3.E, 5.C, 5.A,5.D, 5.E]

O. Students studying history and social science at IMSA evaluate the roles of different groups in the political institutions and social fabric of multicultural societies over time by:

G.1 examining the notion of otherness and exploring how dominant groups within society interact politically and culturally with those designated as others. [SSL-I.B, C, D, II.A, B, III.B, IV.A, C, D, V.A, B; IL-14.E.5, D.5; AHA-2.C, 3.B, 3.D, 3.G, 3.H]
G.2 analyzing how varied cultures and intellectual traditions interact and form syntheses when they are brought into close proximity. [SSL- I.B, C, D, II.A, B, III.B, IV.A, C, D, V.A, B; IL-16.C.A; AHA-2.C, 3.E, 3.G]
G.3 assessing how different political systems include, exclude, and ignore minority groups in different periods of history. [IL-16.C.5.B, AHA-2.C, 3.E, 3.G]
G4 identifying the strategies used by different groups to gain a voice in the political process. [SSL-I.B, C, D, II.A, B, III.B, IV.A, C, D, V.A; IL-14.C.5, E.5; AHA-3.G, 3.H, 5.D, 5.E, 5.F]

Correlations to Other Standards

IMSA’s Standards of Significant Learning
IMSA’s History / Social Science Learning Standards

I. Developing The tools of Thought

A. Develop automaticity in skills, concepts, and processes that support and enable complex thought. B.3, C.1-2, D.3, G.2, H.1-2, I.1, I.3, J.2
B. Construct questions which further understanding, forge connections, and deepen meaning. A.5, B.3, C.1, D.3, F.1, F.3, G.1-3, H.1-3, I.1-3, J.1, O.1, 0.2, 0.4
C. Precisely observe phenomena and accurately record findings. A.4, cB.3, C.1-4, D.3, E.1-2, H.1, K.1-5, L.1-3, M.1-3, N.1-2, O.1-2, O.4
D. Evaluate the soundness and relevance of information and reasoning. A.2, A.4, B.3, C.1-4, D.1, D.3, E.1-2, F.1, F.3, H.1, H.3, I.1, I.3, K.2-5, L.1-3, M.1, M.3, N.1-2, O.1, O.2, O.4

II. Thinking About Thinking

A. Identify unexamined cultural, historical, and personal assumptions and misconceptions that impede and skew inquiry. A.1-4, B.2-3, C.1, C.3-4, D.1, D.3, E.1-2, F.2, F.3, G.1-3, H.3, I.1-3, J.1-2, K.1-5, L.1-3, N.1-2, O.1-2, O.4
B. Find and analyze ambiguities inherent within any set of textual, social, physical, or theoretical circumstances. A.1-4, B.2-3, C.1, C.3-4, D.1, D.3, E.1-2, F.1-3, G.1, G.3, H.1, H.3, I.1-3, J.1-2, K.1-5, L.1-3, N.1-2, O.1-2, O.4

III.Extending and Integrating Thought

A. Use appropriate technologies as extensions of the mind. A.4, B.2, C.1-4, D.1, E.1, F.2, G.3, H.1, H.3, I.2-3, M.1, M.3
B. Recognize, pursue, and explain substantive connections within and among areas of knowledge. A.4, B.2, D.2-3, F.1, F.3, G.1-3, H.1-3, I.1-3, J.1-2, K.2-3, N.1-2, O.1-2, O.4
C. Recreate the beautiful conceptions that give coherence to structures of thought. E.2, F.2-3, G.1-3, H.1-3, I.1-3, J.1-2

IV. Expressing and Evaluating Constructs

A. Construct and support judgements based on evidence. A.4, B.2-3, C.1-4, D.1-2, E.2, F.1-3, G.1-3, H.1-3, I.1, I.3, J.1, K.1-5, L.1-3, M.1-3, N.1-2, O.1-2, O.4
B. Write and speak with power, economy, and elegance. C.1, C.3, D.1, F.3, G.1-2, H.1-3, I.1-3, K.1
C. Identify and characterize the composing elements of dynamic and organic wholes, structures, and systems. B.2-3, C.1-3, D.2, E.2, F.1-3, G.1-3, H.1-3, I.1, I.3, J.1-2, K.4-5, O.1-2, O.4
D. Develop an aesthetic awareness and capability. C.1, C.3, E.2, F.3, G.2, H.2-3, I.1, I.3, J.2, O.1-2, O.4

V. Thinking and Acting with Others

A. Identify, understand, and accept the rights and responsibilities of belonging to a diverse community A.1-2, A.4, B.2, D.2, F.2-3, G.1-2, H.2, I.1, I.3, K.4-5, L.1-3, N.1-2, O.1-2, O.4
B. Make reasoned decisions which reflect ethical standards, and act in accordance with those decisions. A.1, A.3-4, D.2-3, F.2-3, G.2-3, I.1-3, K.3-5, L.1-3, N.1-2, O.1
C. Establish and commit to a personal wellness lifestyle in the development of the whole self. B.2

Learning Standards Correlation
The table that follows details the correlation of IMSA Learning Standards to our SSLs, to appropriate Illinois Learning Standards, and other standards valued in the History and Social Science learning area.

References
National Center for History in the Schools (1996). National standards for history (AHA). Los Angeles, CA: National Center for History in the Schools (U.S.).
Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy® (1994). Standards of significant learning. Aurora, IL: IMSA.
Illinois State Board of Education (1997). Illinois learning standards. Springfield, IL: ISBE.

Persisting Questions in History and Social Science
The following are persisting questions which will be used as vehicles to focus learning toward standards cited above. These questions present themselves at various times in history or may revolve around certain seminal periods and historical themes. The consideration of such questions is crucial for students to understand the American Republic, to evaluate their place within it, and to participate in democratic processes. The term toolbox has been used to denote these sets of questions.

American Studies Toolbox
What role is played by property and property rights in the history of the American Republic? To what extent does wealth dominate social and political institutions over time?

How does the geography of the North American continent influence the character of the American society, the development of the American economy, and the institutions of American government?

What are the sources of political power? How is power and authority justified? How have power structures evolved on the North American continent from pre-Columbian time until the 21st Century?

What is capitalism? How has capitalism shaped American society? How has the control of capital influenced American history and American policy and how does it continue to do so?

What different meanings may be assigned to liberty” and “equality? Does equality refer to political expression, social standing, or to material existence? How has its meaning changed over 400 years of American history?

What role has religion and religious freedom played in the development of American institutions and American values? How is the scope of religion limited in American life? How does the relationship between religion and the state continue to develop with respect to ethical/moral issues?

What is a democracy? What are the differences between direct democracy and a democratic republic? How have American institutions developed democratically since the Revolution?

How may American culture be characterized as a mosaic of immigrant experiences? How have different immigrant groups shaped the character of United States?

How have conceptions of gender affected American social structures and institutions? How do gender issues become part of the ongoing reinterpretation of liberty” and “equality?

How has race been a factor in American society and American history? How have minority communities developed unique institutions and cultural elements, and how have those elements become part of the American culture as a whole?

How have American attitudes toward nature changed over the last 400 years? What role does the wilderness or the frontier play in the American imagination and in American political reality? How does this concept express itself today?

How do science and technology play a role in the growth of American economic and political power? What is the relationship between science, corporate culture and government in modern America?

What international factors contributed to the exploration, colonization, and development of the U.S.A.? What is America’s relationship with the rest of the world? Has America always been considered a world power? How has America developed into a nation with tremendous international influence and what domestic factors have influenced American foreign policy?

World Studies Toolbox
What different kinds of authority and power structures exist in world societies over time? What do these structures have in common and how is authority ideologically justified?

How do world societies approach issues of material production and wealth? How do common strategies of production and commerce bind the globe together during different periods?

What varieties of social order present themselves through out world history? How do different societies respond to questions of status and equality? What is the interaction between wealth and social order?

How do conceptions of gender affect social structures and institutions in general around the world and over time? What variety exists among cultures with respect to gender roles?

How do societies deal with the question of otherness and with the toleration of difference? What roles are played by law, custom, and religion in excluding/tolerating others?

How do societies create and enforce standards of ethical and moral behavior? How do these standards relate to law and religion? What common ground can we identify among world ethical systems?

How do world societies characterize their relationship with the natural world? How do they explain its creation and processes? Do they consider themselves part of the natural world or outside of nature? How are these questions evident in various systems of mythology, philosophy, and science?

How do geography and climate affect human society and human culture? What patterns are evident when one assesses cultural responses to geographic factors?

How does technology interact with social and economic structures around the world. In what ways does technology shape the relationship of humanity to the environment? Does technology enhance contact between world cultures at any given period and in what ways?

How do world cultures interact overtime? Is global contact and integration inevitable? What are the origins of a modern global society? What are the origins of a global society in which dissidents in Ireland, Palestine, Tianamen Square all wear the same clothes and appear world wide on the same TV network.

How do world peoples view themselves? How do mythology, literature and history serve as mirrors, reflecting human hopes, fears, and biases? What common themes unite mythology, history, and literature across world boundaries?

Toolbox for Consideration of Ethical Contemporary Policy Making
What is the relationship between cultural autonomy and human rights in the modern world? Should notions of political, social, and gender equality be promoted around the world?

What is the relationship between human needs and the natural environment? Should issues of environmental preservation limit agricultural, industrial, and technological development that aims to provide for the needs of a growing human population?

What is the relationship between human expectations, private property, and scarce resources? Should resources and wealth be redistributed to address basic human needs?

What is the relationship between market forces and human living standards? Should human labor be rewarded and regulated worldwide in ways that transcend the marketplace?

What is the relationship between national sovereignty and global cooperation? Should the globalization of trade and commerce be accompanied by greater international political integration or world government?